Antilibrary

So many books to read, so little time.

New Books

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Some of these I got from a book sale (very cheap, about 25 cents to a dollar), others from Borders.

  • The Social System, Talcott Parsons.
  • The Art of War, Antoine Henri de Jomini
  • Speed and Politics, Paul Virilio
  • Finding the Target, Robert Kagan
  • Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies, E.D. Klemke (ed)
  • The Age of Empire, Eric Hobswam
  • Classics of Western Thought: The Modern World, Charles Hirschfeld and Edgar E. Knoebel (eds).
  • The Nuclear Reader: Strategy and Weapons, Charles W. Kegley Jr. and Eugene R. Wittkopf (eds).
  • European Literary Theory and Practice: From Existential Phenomenology to Structuralism, Vernon W. Gras (ed).
  • Sociological Theory: Classical Founders and Contemporary Perspectives, Doyle Paul Johnson
  • The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man, Richard Macksey and Eugenio Donato (ed)
  • The Philosophy of Biology, Michael Ruse (ed)
  • The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics, Michael J. Loux (ed).
  • Introduction to Phenomenology, Robert Sokolowksi
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Written by Adam Elkus

November 24, 2008 at 5:26 am

Posted in Nonfiction

Review: The Strongest Tribe

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Bing West. Random House, NY. 2008.

 

I’m in the middle of writing a case study about insurgency and counterinsurgency in Anbar Province.  Given his other two books, West is easily the authority on the matter, despite his occasional (but certainly earned given his extensive service) outlandishness. So in this review, I’ll focus more on Anbar and leave future readers to wade through the 2007 Battle of Baghdad on their own. 

Whereas other books like Fiasco end in 2006 when the insurgency peaks and the civil war begins, West’s account ends just after the defeat of the Second Sadrist Intifada in May 2008.  Up until that point, he provides a comprehensive account of American strategy and tactics since the beginning of the war, including perspectives throughout the chain of command and different locales in theatre. His observations put the reader front and center into the dilemmas faced by the American military in the war, and the long hard fight to win over the loyalties of the Iraqi people.

At heart, this book is about how the United States military learned counterinsurgency.  Reading will overturn any preconceived notions about the subject, unless of course you were there and experienced it yourself.  For example, while 2007 was the turning point in Iraq, it was in late 2006 that Ramadi, the capital of Anbar Province, was brought under control by the Marines.  To some degree, the Marines are suggested to have picked up COIN faster than the rest of MNF-I.  In taking over Anbar in Spring 2004 from the 82nd Airborne, Marine Expeditionary Force I commanded by Gen. James Mattis deliberately sought a velvet glove compared to the Army’s heavy-handed tactics.  This plan was disrupted by First Battle of Fallujah, ordered by Washington and then cancelled as the Marines were about to take the city in April 2004.  It was pacified until the Second Battle in November 2004.

West illustrates how the Marines began to practice COIN piecemeal in isolated pockets across Anbar.   Fallujah may have been pacified, but insurgents cells still remained in the city. Ramadi was never entirely abandoned by the US military, but attacks are constant, especially on Route Michigan (the city’s main thoroughfare) and against the Government Center.  In between lay rural towns and hamlets, centered on the small city of Habbaniyah.  

In his travels, West shows how the Marines eventually win over the population in Anbar by bringing security to the people, and by abandoning a force protection strategy that seeks to reduce the amount of risk to the US military by operating on massive Forward Operation Bases and ‘commuting’ to work in towns and cities.  Instead, the Marines take back cities and towns block by block, and actively undermine the strategy of murder and intimidation practiced by Al Qaeda and its allies.  AQI finds itself unable to ensure the quiesence of the Sunni population once the Americans communicate to Iraqis that they will be a reliable partner in the fight against al Qaeda, reinforced by the American strategy of embedding units within major population centers.  Once the Marines communicate to the Iraqis that they were there to stay, the tide of the war shifted permanently.  

One great fault of the book is that it lacks an Index.  This makes it a bit more difficult to track unit and commander histories and evolution of the war in different locales, as the action often jumps from town to town in each chapter.  It should also be noted that this is not an unbiased account either, but first and foremost represents the perspective of the US military. West freely passes judgment of the strategic failures of the Bush Administration and anti-war rhetoric of Congressional Democrats (John Murtha gets a serious dressing down for his post-Haditha comments). These detours back to Washington are thankfully brief as the book runs for a healthy 350 pages.  

In a nutshell, no longer book captures the entire trajectory of the war – its defeats and victories – so completely as The Strongest Tribe. Certainly others will follow, but I doubt few will compete.

Written by stephenpampinella

November 21, 2008 at 10:15 pm

Posted in Nonfiction

Question on translations and a quantum library of light fiction

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An interesting question has arisen (for me at least) from Shane Deichmans` excellent review of Admiral Gorshkow`s book The SeaPower of the State.

The question is not whether to buy the book at all. If Shane´s model of what a review should be is not enough to enable a man to take a decision I do not know what is.

The question is: Do I get the

  • Naval Institute Press – (1979) version (English)
  • Berlin, Militärverlag. der DDR, 1978 (German, official East German military press version)
  • Seemacht Sowjetunion : Sergej G. Gorschkow. Dt. Ausg. hrsg. von Eckhardt Opitz Hoffmann und Campe, 1978 (West German ed. from an editor with a 1st rate reputation)

The Naval Inst. version is probably very good, but German is my native laguage so I wd give precedence to an equally good German version.

Now the East German Militärverlag made some good books (I have read some of them) and it may be closer ideologically, thus more authentic. I know the terminology well enough so that may be a plus.

On the other hand the Hoffmann & Campe outfit is known for quality and the editor Prof. Opitz is no fool.

What do you think ? Does it matter at all ?

Read the rest of this entry »

Written by fabiusmcunctator

November 17, 2008 at 9:06 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Clerks, Cretins and Other Worlds

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When I was a teenager I read a lot of sci-fi and fantasy. A heck of a lot. Favourite authors included J R R Tolkein, Ursula Le Guin, Andre Norton, Isaac Asimov, Philip K Dick, and Alan Garner. I haven’t read much sci-fi for a while, although I sometimes dip into Tolkein’s The Lord of the Rings and Le Guin’s Earthsea trilogy. But when I read a Times review of Paul McAuley’s The Quiet War, I knew that I had to order this new sci-fi novel.

Described by the Times as a “rich and rewardingly complex novel”, The Quiet War

“is set two centuries in the future, after global warming and the death of billions. Humanity is divided into two camps: those who live on Earth, worship Gaia, and are dedicated to restoring the planet, and the Outers, who’ve created independent city-states and habitats in the hostile environments of the moons of Saturn and Jupiter.

To the militaristic, ruling families of Earth, the independent Outers, now looking to colonise more of the Solar System, genetically altering their children to cope with new ecosystems, are a threat. A “quiet war” of espionage, politics and diplomatic skirmishing is heading towards open, total war to decide the future of humankind.”

Sci-fi and fantasy is often derided as infantile and escapist. Witness, for instance, the English literati’s hostile reaction to Tolkein’s The Lord of the Rings and its continued success.

Whatever. Like travel, or living in a foreign country, good sci-fi and fantasy expands the mind and its sense of possibilities. Fantasy and sci-fi can used to examine ethical questions (often in unconventional ways), sound out new ideas and ways of thinking, imagine the impact of revolutionary change, and explore possible futures and alternative worlds. Some of the best sci-fi and fantasy I’ve read – from Norton’s novels about the galactic free traders to Le Guin’s mages of Earthsea – are situated at the fissures and crossing points between civilizations, cultures and worlds. They grapple with the thorny question of whether individuals from different cultures and species can ever understand each other, let alone get along.

And sci-fi and fantasy is just good fun. Any decent novel is escapist – that’s the point of fiction. If you work as a clerk in an airless office with a cretin for a boss, the last thing you want to read is a novel about a clerk in an airless office with a cretin for a boss. That is unless the cubicle is actually a portal to parallel worlds, and the cretinous boss gets torn to pieces by ravenous aliens.

Cross-posted at Kotare: The Strategist.

Written by kotare1718

November 16, 2008 at 7:19 am

Posted in Uncategorized

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“Books Are The Souvenir Edition For Your Idea”

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Books are souvenirs that hold ideas. Ideas are free. If no one knows about your idea, you fail. If your idea doesn’t spread, you fail. If your idea spreads but no one wants to own the souvenir edition, you fail.

From Gaping Void, interviewing Seth Godin, author of Tribes, via TechDirt, via a post on Dreaming 5GW from PurpleSlog.

The Ramones broke even on tickets, made a little bit on records, but made big money on t-shirts. They had to tour to sell the t-shirts, to make a living. I will idly speculate that there is something similar under way in the world of idea-generating people, and the books they write.

Written by lexingtongreen

November 14, 2008 at 12:21 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Gorshkov’s “The Sea Power of the State”

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seapowerofthestate_gorshkovFirst published in 1976 by Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union (and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Navy) Sergei Georgyevich Gorshkov, “The Sea Power of the State” was a dramatic departure from the normally narrow texts from leaders of the Soviet defense establishment.

In this book, Admiral of the Fleet Gorshkov not only offers a vision of the relevance of the “World Ocean” to any nation’s well-being — he also provides a compelling rationale for “joint operations” a full ten years before our own nation’s Goldwater-Nichols Act forced jointness onto a reluctant American defense establishment, and underscores the importance of the littoral in a navy’s ability to influencing events ashore nearly two decades before “… From the Sea”.

The Sea Power of the State is rich in dichotomy: a land-rich nation with few accessible ports preaching the relevance of sea power, an atheist totalitarian regime describing the social and cultural significance of the “World Ocean”, a nation besmirched for its negative impact on the environment bemoaning pollutants and the need for “union with the environment”, and a foundational tome for effective naval force planning from a nation that just this month claimed the lives of nearly two dozen civilians in a submarine accident. Such is Gorshkov’s compelling style — scholarly and impeccably researched, with steadfast devotion to the tenets of Marxism, decrying the “imperialist aggression” of the Capitalist powers who exploit sea power to “hold in check other states.”

Despite the Communist propaganda (which is seamlessly woven into Gorshkov’s prose), The Sea Power of the State is replete with history, statistics and analysis.  Gorshkov calls the World Ocean “the most important environmental element of Marxism”, underscoring the essence of sea power as “linkages amongst elements” of a far-flung enterprise.  Sounding more akin to Sir Julian Corbett than Alfred Thayer Mahan, Gorshkov addresses sea power from a temporal (vice just geospatial) perspective.

Most impressive about Gorshkov is the breadth of his perspective.  Alongside the typical Communist demagoguery (e.g., “Imperialist powers exploit sea power to preserve their monopoly …”) are lucid arguments for balanced force structure planning (inclusive of creating large merchant fleets), diminished pollutants, and even maritime law (with an appeal to demilitarize the World Ocean beyond the 12 mile territorial waters).  Curiously, he never once expresses disdain at the limited blue water access of the Soviet Union — and was convincing enough in his vision that the Kremlin subsidized his development of a fleet that nearly reached parity with the dominant sea powers of the west.

He dedicates nearly 100 pages to Chapter 2: “Pages in the History of the Navies”, covering nearly five hundred years from the time of Columbus to the Brezhnev-era legacy he helped build.  He deftly describes the crushing Russian defeat in the Straits of Tsushima (in 1905) as being ” … decided in advance” due to the technological and doctrinal advantage of the Japanese fleet operating in its home waters, and to the Czar “… completely misunderstanding the importance of sea power for Russia.”  As this defeat preceded the October Revolution, Gorshkov quotes V.I. Lenin’s remark that, at Tsushima, Russia “… faced not only … a military defeat, but also the complete military bankruptcy of the autocracy.”

Admiral of the Fleet Gorshkov is credited with building the Soviet Navy — a Navy that achieved its strategic purpose in freezing the “imperialist” threat, forcing our rigid attention to the Greenland-Iceland-U.K. (GIUK) Gap and the northern Pacific Ocean.  Through his deep grasp of the “universality of sea power”, its “decisive role in influencing events ashore”, its policy role (in “stabilizing allies or subjugating them”), and the “value of balanced force structure”, Gorshkov gave the Soviet Union a dominant role on the world stage — and, had he been born a few decades sooner, may have altered the course of history.

UPDATE: The inestimable Zenpundit has posted a review of the review — and has added invaluable context to the political machinations of what Zen calls “the noontide of Brezhnev’s faction.”  Check it out.

Written by deichmans

November 13, 2008 at 3:35 am

Posted in Nonfiction

Hell For Leather

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In his review of Mike Davis’ Buda’s Wagon in Foreign Affairs, Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman wrote:

With so many grim stories to tell in a brief book, the context of individual episodes is often sketchy, the underlying political analysis shallow, and the prognosis alarmist.

Well, as an example of strategic analysis Freedman is right, but this does not detract from the value and sheer vicarious thrill of reading Davis’ book. Like Planet of Slums before it, Buda’s Wagon is a fast-paced and enthralling one-stop shop on a focused theme of global importance.

To the best of my knowledge, this is the only readily accessible volume on the subject of the VBIED, the vehicle-borne improvised explosive device, or car bomb. Davis kicks off his history with Mario Buda, an anarchist who detonated a wagon full of explosives in New York City in 1920. Forty deaths, 200 injured, and a declaration of national emergency, as the technological accident inserted itself into a post-WWI America – a phenomenon later described by George Orwell thus:

A complex weapon makes the strong stronger, while a simple weapon – so long as there is no answer to it – gives claws to the weak.

This is the premise upon which Davis builds his story, that of asymmetry and the empowerment of the non-state actor. He traces the development of the car bomb from a semi-strategic weapon analogous to early air power – the attacks on critical urban nodes, and the creation of ‘terror’ – to its flowering as a fully strategic weapon. He illustrates the latter by the attack on the US Marines in Beirut (1963), the 1993 IRA bombs in London, and the 2001 New Delhi experience, which was as close as mankind has come to a nuclear war since the Bay of Pigs.

Buda’s Wagon is a journalistic account, and Davis often reveals his caustic and empassioned wit, particularly in passages in which he lays bare the role of states like the US and Pakistan in sponsoring terrorism from the 1960s on, a period he describes as “mass technology transfer”. Later, when discussing the global jihad, he writes:

Like his forerunners Hermann Goering and Curtis LeMay, Osama bin Laden seems to exult in the sheer statistics of bomb damage – the competitive race to ever greater explosive yields and killing ranges, regardless of the dead children and scattered body parts.

Davis’ Marxist bent is obvious, but as E.H. Carr noted, history is interpretative. His structural framework is interesting, involving step-changes such as the first multiple car bombings, economic car bombs, suicide car bombings, videotaped and broadcast actions, first against tourists, etc. The story ends in Iraq and Afghanistan 2006, having structured the latter part of the book around the principal theme of “the thousand fissures of ethnic and religious enmity that globalisation has paradoxically revealed.” He describes the car bomb as the “kudzu vine of destruction” and asks if it can be countered. The answer seems to be ‘no’, and his historical account illuminates the failure of counter-terrorism and counterinsurgency to combat VBIEDs thus far.

Conversely, Davis suggests that initiatives like urban ‘rings of steel’ and heavy surveillance environments are the future, and will be as ineffective against the “hot rod of the apocalypse” as previous schemes. “The car bomb probably has a brilliant future”, despite the militarisation of Baghdad and London alike. Vehicles are ubiquitous technologies, and large cities “will never enjoy universal security”. As with much of modern CT thinking, it’s all about risk management, rather than 100% “beating the terrorists”. Davis offers no solutions to this quandary, and is probably right when he states that solutions cannot be achieved, for example, through “that sine qua non, the permanent suspension of civil liberties.”

Buda’s Wagon serves as a reminder of the evolution of a phenomenon rather than a deep analysis of one, as Freedman critiqued, but it is more than a lazy addition to the groaning shelves of bookstores fuelling the terrorism industry. As a provider of occasional great insight it should be read by public, politicians and practitioners alike – especially those who think they know everything about the history and future of that most ubiquitous weapon of technological urbanism, the car bomb.

Written by Tim Stevens

November 12, 2008 at 10:01 am

Posted in Nonfiction